Earth Science Learning Community

Lesson 3 - Heat Transfers

Lesson Plan

State Standards:

High School -- Physical Science

Central Concept: Heat is energy that is transferred by the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.
3.1 Explain how heat energy is transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation.
3.2 Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.
3.3 Describe the relationship between average molecular kinetic energy and temperature. Recognize that energy is absorbed when a substance changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas, and that energy is released when a substance changes from a gas to a liquid to a solid. Explain the relationships among evaporation, condensation, cooling, and warming.

Essential Questions:

Lesson Questions:

Introduction:

Heat is a form of energy, specifically "thermal energy," and according to the Law of Conservation of Energy, it cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed between forms of energy. We encounter the conversion between energy forms in our everyday experience. Some examples include the burning of wood or gasoline, combustion of (burning) wood, coal or gasoline, the fusion in the Sun, and friction.

In addition to the conversion between forms of energy into heat, an object can also acquire heat from another warm object by heat transfer, which happens in one of three ways. The most familiar mode of heat transfer is conduction. Another mode of heat transfer is radiation. Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by the release of a photon whose wavelength is in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The final mode of heat transfer, is convection which is simply and accurately defined by the phrase "hot air rises."

When masses of air with significant temperature difference come into contact, they begin to mix, and the warmer air from one front rises above the cold air from the other front along the boundary (or front) forming a slanted incline called a thermocline. The cold mass then slides along below the mass of warm air causing the winds we experience. The Earth's tilt, rotation, and orbit around the Sun are responsible for weather patterns, like El Niño, but the key to understanding these patterns is the transfer of thermal energy.

Task:

Listen to the story of The Three Bears, after which you will conduct an experiment based on the children's book The Three Bears.

Lesson Experiences:

Ellicit & Engage:

Find a partner, and tell each other the story of The Three Bears.

Discuss these warm-up questions in small groups and then large group:

Explore: Why were the porridges different temperatures?

Procedure

1. Divide into groups of four. At each table place a metal cup, Styrofoam cup, and ceramic cup. Make predictions about what you believe will happen to the temperature of each bowl of porridge.

2. Some of the oatmeal will be put in a medium sized metal bowl (i.e., Mama Bear's bowl). A large ceramic bowl filled with A LOT of oatmeal,--Papa Bear has a big appetite--and a small Styrofoam bowl (Baby Bear's bowl). Thermometers should be stuck into each bowl-in the center.

3. The temperature should be taken and recorded every thirty seconds for ten minutes.

4. Graph the data on the same graph using GoogleDocs . Depending on time design a graph as an individual or a small group. This could also be done as a class with the teacher on the next day or assigned as homework.

5. Design an experiment that will make Baby Bear's bowl of porridge "just right" and/or design a plan to make it just right. Baby Bear's bowl must still contain the least amount of porridge.

6. Design an experiment that will make Mama Bear's bowl of porridge "too cold.” Mama Bear's bowl must still contain the medium amount of porridge between the three bears.

7. Design an experiment that will make Papa Bear's bowl of porridge "too hot.” Papa Bear's bowl must still contain the most amount of porridge between the three bears.



Answer the following questions:

Assessment-

Write a lab report of the inquiry lab performed.

Explain:

Explain the different ways that heat can be transferred between materials and how that related to weather. This will be the lecture portion of this lesson.

Elaborate:

Either your teacher will give you a set or you will find 8 to 10 photos of something or someone gaining or losing heat. Determine what type of heat transfer is occurring in several images. Examples could include a cup of hot chocolate, a person breathing outside in winter, fog on the horizon.... Use your imagination and the power of the Internet to search for images or use this sample set.

Instructions
1. Look at the images.
2. On your own, determine what type of heat transfer is occurring in the image.
3. As a group discuss what type of heat transfer is occurring and how you know this.

Evaluate:

Answer the following questions about each image (there are 8 to 10). The images are of different forms of heat transfer like hot chocolate or someone breathing in winter.
1. Identify the evidence that heat is being transferred;
2. Indicate the heat source;
3. Note the direction(s) heat is moving and;
4. Describe the type(s) (convection, conduction, or radiation) of transfers taking place.

Using your cell phone text in the answer to 37607. You can also submit your answers at http://PollEv.com

5. As a group discuss what type of heat transfer is occurring and how you know
6. Repeat steps 2-4 for another image

Extension:

Create an online poster (or Glog http://edu.glogster.com/ ) in which you explain the following objectives:


Your Glogster must have the following components:

Conclusion:

The ways in which heat transfers is imperative to climate and how weather is manifested in a number of ways. Connecting a chidlren's story to the larger science demonstrates your understanding!

 

Assessments:

 

You will be able to... Strong Good Adequate Inadequate Weighting
Identify evidence that heat is being transferred List 3 pieces of evidence that how heat is being transferred List 2 pieces of evidence that how heat is being transferred Lists 1 piece of evidence that how heat is being transferred List 0 pieces of evidence that how heat is being transferred 25%
Indicate the heat source The correct heat source was indicated The correct heat source was indicated A incorrect heat source was indicated No heat source indicated 25%
note the direction(s) heat is moving The correct direction of heat flow was indicated The correct direction of heat flow was indicated The incorrect direction of heat flow was indicated No direction of heat flow was indicated 25%
describe the type(s) of transfers taking place. The correct type(s) of transfers was indicated The correct type(s) of transfers was indicated The incorrect type(s) of transfers was indicated No type(s) of transfers was indicated 25%

Resources:

Ceramic cup (one for each student group)
Styrofoam cup (one for each student group)
Metal cup (one for each student group)
One large plastic bowl
One medium metal bowl
Several small Styrofoam bowls
Enough oatmeal, (and hot water) for the class
Several thermometers (at least three per student group)
Brown sugar (optional)
Googledocs
podcast
poll anywhere
Internet/projector

http://edu.glogster.com/

Internet image sharing websites, such as Flickr or Wikimedia Commons

The Three Bears story in this activity is adapted from The Three Bears by Denise M. Gerdes.

Image Credits:

Denslow's Three Bears

Denslow's three bears pg 7.jpg\

Denslow's three bears pg 5.jpg Porridge.jpg Styrofoam bowl.JPG Bowl (PSF).jpg

Hot Chocolate

"Hot chocolate, Café Zéphyr, Paris" Copyright © 2006 David Monniaux from Wikimedia Commons

Thermos

A picture of a Thermos brand Vacuum flask, 20 January 2010, Denae Bedard, User:Dhscommtech from Wikimedia Commons